Explaining the dreaded “No init found.” boot hang message¶
OK, so you’ve got this pretty unintuitive message (currently located in init/main.c) and are wondering what the H*** went wrong. Some high-level reasons for failure (listed roughly in order of execution) to load the init binary are:
- Unable to mount root FS
- init binary doesn’t exist on rootfs
- broken console device
- binary exists but dependencies not available
- binary cannot be loaded
- Set “debug” kernel parameter (in bootloader config file or CONFIG_CMDLINE) to get more detailed kernel messages.
- make sure you have the correct root FS type
root=kernel parameter points to the correct partition), required drivers such as storage hardware (such as SCSI or USB!) and filesystem (ext3, jffs2 etc.) are builtin (alternatively as modules, to be pre-loaded by an initrd)
- Possibly a conflict in
console= setup–> initial console unavailable. E.g. some serial consoles are unreliable due to serial IRQ issues (e.g. missing interrupt-based configuration). Try using a different
console= deviceor e.g.
- e.g. required library dependencies of the init binary such as
/lib/ld-linux.so.2missing or broken. Use
readelf -d <INIT>|grep NEEDEDto find out which libraries are required.
- make sure the binary’s architecture matches your hardware.
E.g. i386 vs. x86_64 mismatch, or trying to load x86 on ARM hardware.
In case you tried loading a non-binary file here (shell script?),
you should make sure that the script specifies an interpreter in its shebang
header line (
#!/...) that is fully working (including its library dependencies). And before tackling scripts, better first test a simple non-script binary such as
/bin/shand confirm its successful execution. To find out more, add code
to init/main.cto display kernel_execve()s return values.
Please extend this explanation whenever you find new failure causes (after all loading the init binary is a CRITICAL and hard transition step which needs to be made as painless as possible), then submit patch to LKML. Further TODOs:
- Implement the various
run_init_process()invocations via a struct array which can then store the
kernel_execve()result value and on failure log it all by iterating over all results (very important usability fix).
- try to make the implementation itself more helpful in general, e.g. by providing additional error messages at affected places.
Andreas Mohr <andi at lisas period de>